Musings, politics and environmental issues

Posts tagged ‘PCC silicon smelter’

Heavy industry in Iceland looks to CarbFix to become carbon-neutral

Iceland’s four largest CO2 emitters, three of which are aluminium smelters and the other a ferro-silicon plant, have signed a Letter of Intent with the Icelandic government to look for ways to become carbon neutral by 2040. The PCC silicon metal smelter at Bakki, which is another large emitter, is also expected to sign – “although our first priority is to get the operation running properly,” according to the environmental officer there.

The aim is to thoroughly investigate whether the CarbFix method for storing CO2 can become a viable option, both technically and financially, for storing CO2 emissions from these companies.

CarbFix was set up originally in 2007 in conjunction with the Hellisheidi geothermal power station, where CO2 is captured from steam and dissolved in water at pressure. The water is then injected into underground basalt rock at a depth of 500-800 m, where it forms carbonate minerals such as calcite within a few years. These carbonate minerals are stable on a geological time-scale.

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Annual capacity at the Hellisheidi plant is around 12,000 tonnes CO2, which accounts for about a third of the plant’s CO2 emissions. The Hellisheidi plant also removes hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from the steam, but this will not be an issue with the companies intending to become carbon-neutral by 2040.

In 2017, a pilot-scale Direct Air Capture unit was added to the system: this process is independent of location as it mostly relies on energy in the form of heat, which is available as a by-product in numerous industrial processes. Unfortunately the technique is currently too expensive to be used  for making heavy industry climate-neutral.

The project with heavy industry, which is expected to span five to ten years, will involve analysing the concentration of CO2 in emissions, so that similar removal techniques can be applied to those at Hellisheidi. The next step will involve design and manufacture of experimental equipment for capturing and injecting CO2, followed by design and manufacture of similar equipment on a larger scale.

The standard method of carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves pumping oil into old gas fields or using some form of carbon capture and usage (CCU). Edda Sif Aradóttir, who is project manager of CarbFix, says there are both advantages and disadvantages to traditional methods.

“The CarbFix method transforms CO2 into minerals within two years through a chemical process that happens naturally in nature, while traditional methods store CO2 in gas or liquid form. The procedure is thus of a completely different nature and CO2 is permanently removed,” she says.

She says that the main disadvantage is that it requires a considerable amount of water to dissolve the CO2 where chemical changes occur between water and rock. “On the other hand, the water needed by the procedure may be reused, which we in fact do up at Hellisheidi … we are working at developing the process even more so that seawater can be used,” she explained.

Funding for the CarbFix2 project has come from various programmes within the EU, including Horizon 2020, with collaborators in Toulouse, Barcelona and Zurich. CarbFix2 is designed to move the project on from a demonstration phase to one which will lead to an economically viable, complete CCS chain that can be used within Europe and globally.

Future research involves exporting the method to new injection sites in Germany, Italy and Turkey as well as Iceland, and further developing the method so it can be used offshore for permanent mineral storage of CO2 on the sub-sea floor. CarbFix proponents say that there is far more storage available in porous sub-marine basalts than required for the geologic storage of all the anthropogenic CO2 that will ever be produced.

I also wrote about this for ENDS Europe Daily today.

 

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Iceland’s silicon metal industry still having problems

PCC Bakki Silicon mentioned on their Facebook page recently that although their first furnace was operating smoothly for considerable time (which I doubt is the case), furnace no. 2 was still causing them problems. “Now”, they say, the cooling system is leaking water and they have to open the emergency chimney again. The plant is causing endless problems, like the first silicon plant at Helguvik that was eventually closed down after nine months of operation.

In response to the leak, one person – obviously a member of ASH, the group opposed to the silicon smelter in Helguvik  – commented: “Helguvik all over again.”

The Bakki smelter is supposedly using BAT,  Best Available Technology, or Best Available Techniques, which sounds reassuring but is just a bluff that doesn’t mean anything.

Engineering-related problems are not their only worries. There was another small fire this morning at the plant, in the same place as the first fire.

They are also about to get their third CEO since the plant started operation about a year ago. Ostensibly, CEO no. 2 wants to move down south again for personal reasons.

In response to a question I asked  at a public meeting last year, organized by the company Stakksberg that is currently seeing to the “refurbishment” of the Helguvik plant, the Stakksberg director, Thordur Olafur Thordarson,  admitted that he did not know about the problems that PCC was having.

Stakksberg is a daughter company of Arion Bank, set up specifically to see to the Helguvik smelter, and has been trying to sell the former United Silicon plant for many months. Originally, Arion Bank said that they had a number of prospective buyers, but they obviously haven’t succeeded yet – and with all the countless problems that PCC is having, I can’t see any company wanting to take it on.

Indeed, even though Stakksberg never intended to run the Helguvik plant themselves, their website now says:

Stakksberg owns a plant in Helguvik, which produces 99% pure silicon (Si) and has a production capacity of 23,000 tonnes per year. The silicon is used, among other things, to manufacture solar cells and computer circuits. Some 70 persons will be employed at Stakksberg’s plant in Helguvik when the plant starts its operation.

Note the use of the present tense (produces, is used) and the use of the words “Stakksberg’s plant”. The website makes no mention of trying to sell the plant. Stakksberg say they hope to start the Helguvik plant up in the last quarter of 2020.

That won’t be popular.

 

PCC silicon smelter at Bakki no better than United Silicon’s smelter at Helguvik

The Icelandic media have gradually woken up to the fact that the silicon smelter  operated by PCC at Bakki in North Iceland is little better than Iceland’s first silicon smelter at Helguvik, owned by United Silicon, which was closed down by the Environment Agency on September 1 last year after about nine months of operation. Initially, the lack of media attention indicated that everything was going to plan, when in fact this was not the case at all.

Besides having to switch the first furnace at Bakki on and off a number of times, with accompanying odour problems, when it was finally brought into operation after a delay of over four months, there was a fire at Bakki in July and ongoing problems with the start-up of the second furnace. Bogi, which apparently still hasn’t become fully functional (United Silicon were never allowed to start up a second furnace because of the problems with the first one).

Then last month there was an accident to one of the workers, when he was using a “gun” to open part of the furnace and the bullet rebound to hit him on his arm.

The trade union for the plant’s workers, Framsýn, say that staff turnover has been rapid and that many of the new workers come from Estonia. Workers are discontented and relations between management and ordinary workers are strained – probably not helped by the accident.

In mid-September the smelter’s first managing director, Hafsteinn Viktorsson, was replaced by Jokull Gunnarsson, who had previously been in charge of the plant’s production process. The media have complained that it is nigh impossible to contact Gunnarsson.

The company make light of all their problems, glossing over them with words such as “There are many things to think about when starting up a furnace…” “and “Such events can occur…”.

Just as I thought that the ongoing problems at Bakki must make it unlikely that a buyer would be found for the Helguvik smelter, it was reported that many investors had shown interest in buying the Helguvik plant. PCC still don’t have any news in English on their website or their Facebook page, so I don’t know how much the prospective buyers of the Helguvik plant know about the problems encountered by PCC with its “best available technology”.

One item of interest concerning the Helguvik plant is that Stakksberg – the company set up by Arion Bank to sell the smelter – has been working with the local Reykjanesbaer council to change the district land-use plans because two of the smelter’s buildings are too high. One would have expected that the smelter’s buildings would have been adapted to the plans….

Update, 23 October: They STILL haven’t managed to get the second furnace to work.

Update, 10 November: They seem to have got Boga working again.

Second silicon furnace begins operation at PCC Bakki

PCC Bakki Silicon started up their second furnace last night, 1 September (ironically exactly a year from when Iceland’s Environment Agency closed down United Silicon’s  silicon smelter in Helguvik, southwest Iceland). They’ve called it Boga.

PCC’s first furnace was called Birta, and suffered a number of setbacks, most of which I’ve probably blogged about, including a fire. One setback I haven’t yet mentioned happened on August 22, when a computer problem caused the emergency smokestack to open for 15 minutes or so. A lot of smoke was released, and residents of the local town complained of a burning odour that residents near the Helguvik plant would recognise at once. This is not by any means the first time this has happened, as less than a month after Birta was started, it was reported that the emergency smokestack had to be opened four or five times due to various problems, although the problems they encountered were not the ones they expected.

PCC are very keen to gloss over their technical problems and have always tried to maintain a glowing image of the factory.

That said, PCC management have said that local residents might experience a burning odour while the second furnace is being brought into use. It will be interesting to see how many problems are experienced with the second furnace.

Update: They reported on their Facebook page on Saturday that the start-up of Boga was proving more complex than expected. had been problems with the feeding system that had shorted not just the second furnace but also the first one. This had happened about a week earlier. They got the latter (Birta) going soon afterwards but decided that Boga needed more attention, not just with the material feeding system but also with the electrodes, which had broken and cracked too much. They were intending to start up Boga again later that day – with potential odours. Ho hum.

Update: They haven’t got Boga going again. On 21 September they said they realised there were a number of problems with it that needed attention and they’d report again when these were done – which hasn’t happened yet (25 September). Bogi has never reached full capacity.

Update: October 23: They STILL haven’t got Boga to work and they haven’t managed to identify the root of the problem.

Update: November 10: They seem to have got Boga working.

 

Fire at PCC silicon smelter

The Icelandic media have just reported that a fire broke out last night at the PCC silicon smelter at Bakki, Husavik. The fire was in the furnace building and lasted about three hours. No one was hurt.

PCC have not put any news on their website since 8 June, so I don’t know whether it’s actually been operating as their last news said that they intended to start up the furnace again after midnight, i.e. June 9. I emailed them two weeks or so ago to ask if the reason nothing new was on their website was because nothing newsworthy was happening, but they didn’t reply. They had generally reported when the plant was being started up again but this time they didn’t.

Perhaps now the Environment Agency will start looking more closely into the operation at Bakki.

Today is the deadline for comments on the scoping document for improvements to the United Silicon plant which the company Stakksberg are overseeing. Stakksberg was set up specifically by Arion Bank for the process, as it is intended to sell the plant and get it operating again, though probably this will not happen before 2020. Karen Kjartansdottir, who was in charge of publicity for United Silicon, is now doing the same for Stakksberg.

Fire in silicon smelters is not unheard of, at least not in Iceland, as three fires occurred in the United Silicon plant at Helguvik, southwest Iceland, before the plant was eventually closed by the Environment Agency. Activists from ASH, the group opposed to heavy industry at Helguvik, are not surprised by the fire at Bakki – the best possible technology was supposedly being used at Bakki but STILL a fire can occur.

Problems with the United Silicon plant were partly attributed to the owners using a mismatch of equipment. But it appears that silicon smelters are proving more of a problem than the Icelandic authorities – not to mention the Icelandic government –  originally thought.

Stay tuned – this blog will probably get updated.

Update: PCC Bakki are on Facebook.  They have news (in Icelandic) there, including about the fire. They want to start up the other furnace as soon as possible while the other is getting repaired/checked. They have also now (mid-afternoon Tuesday) updated the news page on their website with information about the fire.

Update 19 July: They have still not started up the smelter again. “It is clear that changes have to be made,” they say.

Update 25 July: They began to start it up again yesterday morning (the process has to be done gradually), but shut it down 8 hours later due to a leak in the cooling system. They warned that villagers might be aware of odour.

Lead-up to United Silicon’s Helguvik smelter criticized

Iceland’s National Audit Office has strongly criticized the actions – or lack of actions – of various government bodies during the period leading up to the start-up of the silicon metal plant run by United Silicon which was eventually closed by the Environment Agency on September 1 last year.

The report (in Icelandic) was submitted to the parliamentary Althing at the end of last week, as it was Vidreisn MP Hanna Katrin Fridriksson who had requested the investigation. Many points came up in the report, some of which were foreseeable and known while others were not.

The Audit Office say that the issuing of concession agreements should be refined in future. They say that those responsible for issuing operating licences (i.e. the Environment Agency) and concession agreements (the Government) must ensure beforehand that the operators of polluting industries can verify their ability to manage such operations and the truth value of the information presented.

They say that the environmental impact assessment (EIA) included air pollution dispersion forecasts that were purported to come from a Danish engineering consultancy, COWI – but, just before the EIA was presented, COWI said they had nothing to do with the making of the model and wanted their name removed. The EIA also did not mention odour pollution and the reasons for it were never explained fully, apart from irregular operation of the arc furnace. They say the the Planning Agency must think about how to react in cases of conceivable deviations from the EIA, especially when a plant is in close proximity to a residential area (as was the case both with United Silicon and the PCC plant in North Iceland that has just started operating).

According to the report, the plant was not fully completed when operations started and the compulsory pre-startup visit by the Occupational Safety and Health Authority did not take place until after operations had started. The plant’s buildings were not in accordance with existing planning regulations, visual pollution was greater than expected (probably due to two buildings being higher than planned) and the plant was not operated in accordance with the EIA, the operating licence or the aims of the concession agreement.

The capital requirements were also underestimated. When the concession agreement and profitability analysis were being prepared, all available data and information came from the company itself, and the information on the owners and administrators was unclear.

The newspaper Fréttablaðið covered the report in some detail and also dug up the following: If the owners had been investigated beforehand, it would have come to light that one of the owners, Magnus Gardarsson – who was fined for speeding last year and also charged with embezzlement and forgery – had been made to resign from COWI for misusing his position as an employee there, and also that a company owned by him had been fined for violating the rights of employees.

 

Odour pollution from PCC silicon metal smelter, Iceland

Well, everyone knew that it MIGHT happen and now it HAS happened. Residents of Husavik, the nearest village to the PCC Bakka silicon metal plant, complained of odour from the PCC plant at the weekend. The company say they had to switch off one of the furnaces at the weekend and intended to start it up again today. When a furnace is switched off, odour can emanate, as happened umpteen times at the United Silicon smelter at Helguvik and eventually led to the plant being shut down by the Environment Agency. In this case, there was a northerly wind, which carried the odour to Husavik.

For those who can read Icelandic, there are interesting news briefs from the company, one of them about odour pollution and the reason why it occurred at the weekend and the other about air quality and emissions of smoke and particulates from the plant.

The company have obviously been having various other teething problems too, as their Icelandic news page is full of news snippets about problems due to a, b and c and delays due to x, y and z. Interestingly, their English website does not have a news page, so it is still full of how wonderfully eco-friendly the plant will be, etc.

Nothing has appeared in the Icelandic press about this (at least not as far as I’m aware at the time of writing this at 22.30 on May 14). Readers of this blog hear it first.

Update: They switched on the furnace again on Monday but other problems came up so they had to switch it off again – which could mean odours reaching Husavik again.